how to build an access control system



In this digital age, security has become the utmost priority for individuals, organizations, and businesses. They want to safeguard their assets, data, and premises from unauthorized access and intruders. This is where access control systems come into play. Access control systems are used to restrict access to specific areas, networks, and buildings based on predefined criteria, rules, and permissions. It not only enhances the safety of assets and people but also enables business owners to monitor and control access from anywhere, at any time.

In this article, we will discuss how to build an access control system from scratch, including hardware, software, cabling, and other factors. We will provide an in-depth guide to help you make an informed decision based on your specific needs and requirements.

Hardware Requirements:

The first step in building an access control system is to select the hardware devices that will form the backbone of your system. This includes the following:

1. Door Access Control System:

A door access control system includes a card reader, controller, and locking mechanism to restrict access to authorized personnel only. A card reader can be of any type, including barcode, magnetic stripe, proximity, or smart card. The controller manages the user database, access rules, and permissions, while the locking mechanism secures the door in the event of a breach.

2. RFID Reader:

An RFID reader is a device that reads the information stored on RFID tags and cards. It uses radio waves to communicate with the tags and provides a non-contact way of identifying individuals and objects.

3. Biometric Reader:

A biometric reader reads and verifies an individual's unique physical characteristics, such as fingerprints, iris patterns, and facial recognition. It provides a high level of security and eliminates the need for cards or keys.

Software Requirements:

The second step is to select the software that will control and manage your access control system. The software should be able to perform the following functions:

1. User Database Management:

The software should be able to create and manage a user database for authorized personnel. It should be able to add/delete/edit users, assign access rules, and permissions.

2. Access Rules and Permissions:

The software should allow you to set access rules and permissions based on the user's role, time, and location. This ensures that only authorized personnel can access specific areas and networks.

3. Reporting and Logging:

The software should be able to generate reports and logs of all access attempts, successful or unsuccessful. This helps business owners to monitor the system and identify any suspicious activity.

Cabling and Wiring Requirements:

The third step is to select the cabling and wiring required for your access control system. This includes Ethernet cables, power cables, and wiring for the locking mechanism. The cables should be installed properly and neatly to avoid any interference or damage.

Installation and Configuration:

The fourth step is to install and configure your access control system. This includes the installation of hardware devices, software, and cabling as per your requirements. The controller and software need to be configured based on your access rules and permissions.

Training and Support:

The final step is to provide training and support to authorized personnel using the access control system. The employees should be trained on how to use the system and the access rules and permissions. Additionally, support should be available in case of any technical issues or system failures.


Building an access control system requires careful planning, selection of hardware and software, cabling, installation, and configuration. It is important to consider the specific needs and requirements of your organization and select the appropriate devices and software. Additionally, training and support are critical to ensure the smooth functioning of the system. By following these steps, you can build a robust and effective access control system to safeguard your assets and premises.


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